Far-right violence and terrorism – November 2023

Actividad yihadista en el Magreb y el Sahel, octubre 2023
Observatorio de atentados yihadistas de noviembre de 2023

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In November 2023, the global landscape was marked by an alarming presence of terrorism linked to extreme right-wing ideologies. This analysis underscores the paramount significance of this issue in the contemporary world order.

Terrorism, irrespective of its ideological roots, has long posed a grave threat to international peace and security. Recent times, however, have witnessed a distinct shift in this threat landscape. The ascent of extreme right-wing terrorism has introduced a new layer of complexity to the global security equation.

This report aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of extreme right-wing terrorism in November 2023, offering insights into its evolution, and current manifestations. By dissecting the trends, causative factors, and ramifications of this phenomenon, our objective is to foster awareness and inform policymaking while fostering international collaboration to counter this growing menace.


United States

Ohio Walmart Shooter with Racial Extremist Ties Leaves Four Injured Before Taking Own Life

Just days before Thanksgiving, 20-year-old Benjamin Charles Jones began shooting at a local Ohio Walmart, injuring four people — a Caucasian female, two African American females and a Caucasian male — before taking his own life. The FBI has revealed that the gunman responsible for the shooting,  may have been influenced by racially motivated violent extremist ideology. Identified as 20-year-old Benjamin Charles Jones, the attacker had Nazi materials, including flags and an SS history book, in his possession. The FBI recovered these items, along with a shooting complex card, handwritten notes, and a laptop, from Jones’ home. The attack unfolded in a Beavercreek Walmart, with three women and a man injured before Jones turned the weapon on himself. Two of the victims were white, and the other two were Black. The FBI continues to investigate the motivating factors behind the attack, examining journal writings from the assailant. [1]

The Beavercreek shooting was the second to target Walmart in less than 24 hours. A day earlier, a man at an outlet in Anchorage, Alaska, shot and killed a woman before fatally wounding himself. Police in Anchorage said it was a domestic violence-related crime.

Iowa School District Issues Apology for Emailing Nazi ‘Quote of the Day’

The Indianola Community School District in Iowa faced backlash after an email blast containing a “Quote of the Day” attributed to Heinrich Himmler, a prominent figure in the Nazi Party, was sent out. The quote, “My honor is my loyalty,” sparked outrage as it came from a leader associated with the Holocaust. Superintendent Ted Ihns apologized, explaining that a school staffer inadvertently included the quote without realizing its highly inappropriate source. In a statement to concerned parents, Ihns expressed regret for the oversight and assured the implementation of a new process to double-check sources, ensuring that future quotes are appropriate for students [2].

Former Obama Administration Security Adviser Stuart Seldowitz Arrested for Hate Crime Harassment

Stuart Seldowitz, a former national security adviser during the Obama administration, has been arrested and charged with three counts of harassment, including a hate crime with aggravated harassment. The arrest stems from a viral video capturing Seldowitz verbally harassing an Egyptian food vendor in Manhattan, New York. In the video, Seldowitz sarcastically asks the Muslim worker if he had violated his daughter “like Muhammad” and proceeds to hurl racial and offensive insults, including calling him a “terrorist.” [3]

Following the incident, Seldowitz attempted to justify his behavior in an NBC News interview, claiming it originated from an “innocent” conversation about the Hamas attack on Israel. Seldowitz’s employer, Gotham Government Relations law firm, swiftly severed ties with him, denouncing his actions as “vile, racist, and not in line with the dignity standards we uphold in our company.

White Supremacist Recruitment Flyers Distributed in Greenwich, Connecticut

Residents in Greenwich, Connecticut, discovered recruitment flyers from a white supremacist group in their driveways, following a trend seen in other communities across the state over the past year. The Greenwich Police are investigating the origin of the materials, emphasizing that while there were no direct threats in the flyers, it appears to be the latest propaganda effort by the group. The flyers, found in small plastic bags with gravel, have surfaced in other Connecticut towns recently, including Durham, Trumbull, Glastonbury, and Vernon. The Nationalist Social Club 131, operating in the Northeast, has been linked to some of these incidents. [4]

Supremacist Convicted in Historic Trial for Deliberate Attack on Muslim Family in Canada

Nathaniel Veltman, a Canadian described as a white supremacist, was declared guilty of murder on November 16 for deliberately running over a Muslim family with his van near Toronto in June 2021. After a ten-week trial, the 22-year-old man was convicted of four murders and one attempted murder in this historic case, marking one of Canada’s deadliest Islamophobic attacks.

Accused of intentionally mowing down five members of the Afzaal family in London, Ontario, Veltman killed both parents, a 15-year-old daughter, and the grandmother, with only a nine-year-old boy surviving but sustaining severe injuries. Veltman initially pleaded not guilty, and his lawyer argued against premeditation, emphasizing the defendant’s mental disorders and hallucinogenic mushroom consumption. The prosecutor highlighted Veltman’s belief in white supremacy, referencing a “terrorist manifesto” found on his computer expressing hatred towards Muslims and advocating for white nationalism. [5]

Neo-Nazi March in Downtown Madison, Wisconsin; Former Mayor’s  Home Vandalized

A Neo-Nazi group conducted a brazen march in downtown Madison, Wisconsin, raising concerns about the increasing visibility of extremist ideologies. Concurrently, the Michigan vacation home of Rahm Emanuel, former Chicago Mayor and current U.S. ambassador to Japan, became the target of anti-Semitic vandalism, as the word “Nazis” was spray-painted on the property’s fence. [6]

Emanuel, a prominent Jewish politician, responded to the incident by emphasizing the resilience against hatred, citing previous encounters with antisemitism and underscoring the fundamental goodness in people.

Arab Muslim Student Targeted in Hit-and-Run at Stanford University in Apparent Hate Crime

An Arab Muslim student at Stanford University was deliberately struck by a car in a hit-and-run incident, believed to be a hate crime. The incident occurred as the student crossed the street near the campus residences. The driver accelerated after hitting the student, shouting, “F**k you and your people.” [7] The victim sustained non-life-threatening injuries and is currently hospitalized. The student identified the perpetrator as someone who had previously filmed pro-Palestinian activists on campus, using the tactic to intimidate and deceive students. The suspect, described as a white male in his 20s, fled the scene in a black SUV.

Stanford University faced criticism for delayed communication about the incident, issuing a campus-wide alert hours after the hit-and-run. Students demand immediate action, accusing the university of complicity in white supremacist violence against Arab and Muslim students. The incident follows ongoing protests at Stanford, where students demand the university condemn the Israeli invasion of Gaza and provide additional support to Palestinian students.



Far-Right Disturbances in Ferraz, Madrid: Rise of Extremist Ideologies Sparks Violent Clashes

As a result of the political moment undergoing in Spain, extremist ideologies propagated by neonazi groups and ultraright collectives have triggered severe disturbances in Madrid. The protests against the amnesty law witnessed around 4,000 demonstrators, many displaying Nazi symbols and engaging in violent confrontations with law enforcement.

The demonstration featured inflammatory chants, offensive slogans, and the prominent display of far-right symbols, including flags and banners. Instances of flag burning and assaults on police have raised alarm about the increasing radicalization and associated violence linked to the far-right in Spain. Additionally, several Estelada flags, a symbol of Catalan independence, were burned during the protests. The protesters chanted slogans such as “investiture, coup, and dictatorship,” and some participants raised their arms while singing the anthem of the División Azul, a historical Spanish volunteer unit associated with controversial actions during World War II and connections to Nazi ideology. [10] The presence of well-organized and ideologically motivated groups underscores the challenges authorities face in addressing the resurgence of extremist sentiments and actions within the country.

Image from one of the protest days near the headquarters of the Spanish Socialist Party. Image: Rodrigo Jiménez.


First ‘Incel’ Terrorism Conviction in Canada: Life Sentence for Misogynistic Attack

In a landmark case in Canada, 21-year-old Oguzhan Sert, the first person charged with terrorism for a gender-based violence attack, received a life sentence for the 2020 murder of 24-year-old Ashley Noelle Arzaga and the severe injury of another woman, identified as J.C. The judge stated that the stabbing, which occurred in a massage parlor and involved a 45-centimeter sword, was motivated by a violent and misogynistic ideology linked to the “incel” (involuntary celibate) subculture.[11] The assailant, Sert, extensively researched incel culture before committing the crime, according to Judge Suhail Akhtar, who rejected Sert’s attempt to evade responsibility by claiming the incel culture had brainwashed him.

The assault on J.C., carried out with the same weapon, was accompanied by language expressing hatred towards women, intending to establish a notorious reputation for Sert in alignment with incel ideology. Sert was also sentenced to three years in prison for the attempted murder of J.C., to be served concurrently. Previously protected under a publication ban due to being a minor at the time of the attack, Sert can now be identified since he has been sentenced as an adult. He has 30 days to appeal the decision.



Extremist Unrest Erupts in Dublin Following Multiple Stabbings

Dublin witnessed severe disturbances in the city center following the stabbing of four individuals, including three minors. Law enforcement officials attribute the chaos to far-right extremist groups. The stabbings, which occurred on Thursday, prompted extremist factions to exploit the situation, launching attacks against the Irish police (Garda) and causing extensive damage to public transportation and urban infrastructure. An anti-immigration demonstration near the crime scene escalated into assaults on Garda officers, involving projectiles like bottles and fireworks. The unrest spread across Dublin, with mobs setting police cars, buses, and trams ablaze, looting stores, and even breaching a major shopping center.[12] The scale of these disturbances, deemed the worst in the country by political figures, resulted in street closures and the suspension of bus, train, and tram services.

Irish President Michael D. Higgins condemned the violence, emphasizing the need to denounce those opposing social inclusion. Garda’s top official, Drew Harris, attributed the protests to an extreme right-wing faction. Thirty-four individuals were arrested, and Irish Prime Minister Leo Varadkar warned of additional far-right protests in the coming weekend.



Concerns Rise Over Racism in New South Wales After Palestinian Christian Child Targeted

New South Wales Premier Chris Minns expressed deep concern over overt acts of racism following an incident where a Palestinian Christian child in Sydney was labeled a terrorist. The Islamophobia Register Australia noted an increase in discriminatory incidents since the start of the Israel-Hamas conflict on October 7. While the targeted student was Christian, the incident is considered an example of Islamophobia due to the likely perception of “Muslimness” in the perpetrator’s mind.

This incident is part of a surge in reported cases, totaling 227 in the seven weeks since October 7, a 13-fold increase in reporting rates. The Islamophobia Register highlighted various instances of harassment, including verbal abuse and spitting at Muslim women.[13] The incident at a school in Sydney has raised concerns within the Palestinian Christian community about being overlooked in educational settings.

Melbourne White Supremacist Faces Charges for Nazi Salute Breach

Jacob Hersant, a prominent white supremacist in Melbourne, is anticipated to become the first individual charged under Victoria’s newly implemented Nazi salute laws. Hersant allegedly performed the banned action outside Melbourne County Court after avoiding additional prison time for assaulting bushwalkers. Police have launched an investigation, and Hersant is expected to be charged for breaching the Summary Offences Act 1966, which prohibits Nazi salutes or displaying Nazi symbols in public.[14] The legislation came into force a week before Hersant’s alleged action.


United Kingdom

Far-Right Violence Mars Pro-Palestinian March in London

The Metropolitan Police in London condemned the “extreme violence” exhibited by far-right protesters who clashed with participants in a pro-Palestinian march on Saturday. While the march itself did not witness physical violence, the counter-protesters engaged in serious offenses related to antisemitic hate crimes, leading to nine officers injured and 145 arrests. The demonstration, drawing around 300,000 people, called for a Gaza ceasefire, marking the largest UK rally since the Israel-Hamas conflict began. The Prime Minister, Boris Johnson, and Chancellor Rishi Sunak condemned the violence, with Sunak denouncing the “violent, wholly unacceptable scenes” involving the English Defence League (EDL) and Hamas sympathizers. [15]

White Supremacist A-Level Student Sentenced to Seven Years for Sharing Terrorism Documents

Malakai Wheeler, an 18-year-old A-level student from Swindon, Wiltshire, has been sentenced to seven years in prison for sharing terrorism-related documents, including instructions on making bombs and weapons. Wheeler, described as a “cold and calculating” white supremacist with extreme right-wing views, was convicted on six charges, including possessing copies of the Terrorist Handbook and the Anarchist’s Handbook. He also shared documents in a chatroom and instructions for items that could be used in acts of terrorism.

Wheeler, who read Mein Kampf at the age of 10 or 11, will serve the first six years in prison, with the final year on licence. The judge stated that he posed an “obvious danger to the public” and had shown no remorse. Wheeler claimed he downloaded the documents out of curiosity and denied being a white supremacist, despite evidence of his involvement in extremist online forums. [16]



French Government Calls for Calm Following Far-Right Riots Triggered by Teen’s Death

The French government has appealed for calm in the aftermath of a village dance party where the death of a 16-year-old boy named Thomas led to violent demonstrations by the far-right. The incident in Crepol, southeastern France, has been seized upon by extremist groups, who frame it as symbolic of rising insecurity in French society.  Although the circumstances surrounding his death remain unclear, members of France’s ultra-right immediately blamed it on “anti-French” sentiment, descending on the region en masse to avenge his death. Olivier Veran, spokesperson for President Emmanuel Macron’s government, visited Crepol to mitigate tensions, emphasizing the tragedy’s judicial resolution. Far-right activists, numbering around 100, sought confrontations in the nearby town of Romans-sur-Isere, prompting police intervention. [17]

Senior prosecutor Laurent de Caigny emphasized that justice should not be taken into the public’s hands, and individuals resorting to illegitimate violence would face consequences. The protests resulted in numerous detentions, with some facing fast-track court hearings, and six individuals receiving prison sentences and restrictions.



Far-Right Violence Mars Pro-Palestinian March in London

Braunau, Adolf Hitler’s birthplace, is facing calls to rename streets honoring two Nazis linked to Hitler and revoke honorary citizenship from a composer with ties to the dictator. The Austrian Mauthausen Committee denounces the streets named after Josef Reiter and Franz Resl as an insult to victims and demands immediate action. The town, known for transforming Hitler’s birthplace to prevent neo-Nazi pilgrimages, is urged to confront its history. Austria, criticized for historical oversights, grapples with addressing Nazi sympathizers’ legacies. The extreme-right FPO party’s prominence adds complexity to Austria’s reckoning with its Nazi past. [18]



Far-Right Terror Plot Foiled in Belgium, Two Arrested

Belgium’s anti-terrorism police have thwarted a far-right terror plot, detaining two suspects, a man, and a woman in their early 20s. The arrests followed raids in Diepenbeek and Ostend, where a house was discovered with significant amounts of Nazi memorabilia. The suspects are accused of recruiting individuals for terrorist activities and preparing for acts of terrorism. The operation is part of a broader European effort against right-wing terrorism, involving raids in Croatia, Germany, Lithuania, Romania, and Italy. In total, five people were apprehended, and seven others were interrogated across the participating countries. The detainees were found to be active on encrypted platforms, encouraging terrorist acts, recruiting members, and sharing information on creating weapons. [19]


Social Media

Elon Musk Sparks Controversy by Endorsing Antisemitic Content on X, Faces Backlash and Advertiser Boycott

Elon Musk, CEO of X (formerly Twitter), has become embroiled in a controversy surrounding his endorsement of antisemitic content on the platform. Musk’s endorsement of a tweet echoing the white supremacist Great Replacement Theory, falsely claiming Jews are fostering hatred against whites, sparked outrage. His response, “You have said the actual truth,” intensified the backlash. Subsequently, Musk made additional antisemitic remarks, leading major brands, including Apple, IBM, Disney, and others, to suspend advertising on X. Paris Hilton’s 11:11 also severed ties, canceling a recent partnership deal. [8]

Rather than addressing the allegations, Musk opted to file a lawsuit against Media Matters on November 20. The lawsuit accuses Media Matters of creating false images that associate advertisers’ posts with neo-Nazi and white-nationalist content on X. Legal experts criticize Musk’s lawsuit, citing its potential contradiction to free speech principles. The controversy unfolds against the backdrop of a global surge in antisemitic incidents.  Musk’s actions have not only led to a significant advertiser boycott but have also fueled concerns about the promotion of hate speech on social media platforms.

New York Mobilizes Against Surge in Online Hate Speech: Governor Allocates $3 Million to Combat Extremism

Governor Kathy Hochul of New York responds to a significant increase in online hate speech, with a 425 percent rise against Jewish communities and a 417 percent increase targeting Muslim communities. Allocating $3 million, the governor expands the state’s Domestic Terrorism Prevention Unit’s Threat Assessment and Management training to all colleges and universities. Additionally, the Division of Homeland Security and Emergency Services will create a media literacy toolkit for K-12 schools, and the governor urges social media companies to enhance monitoring against content inciting violence. Amid a 400 percent surge in antisemitic and Islamophobic threats nationwide, the measures aim to combat hate speech and extremism. [9]


Graphical Analysis of Far-Right Terrorism in November 2023

In November 2023, the global far-right terrorism landscape continued to exhibit concerning trends. A total of 19 incidents associated with right-wing extremist terrorism or radicalization were documented, indicating a slight increase compared to the previous month. Notably, Europe experienced a surge in such activities, with several incidents reported in countries like Belgium, Germany, and France. An impactful event in Belgium serves as a reflection of the prevailing situation: the foiling of a far-right terror plot, resulting in the arrest of two individuals.

Two noteworthy events occurred in the realm of social media, underscoring the increasing influence of online platforms in fostering extremist ideologies and facilitating radicalization. These incidents involved the dissemination of propaganda, recruitment efforts, or promoting violence within digital spaces.

Additionally, it is essential to address the recent conflict in Gaza, which has given rise to significant incidents accentuating the division between Muslims and Jews around the globe.

Regarding incident typology, there is a notable trend in November 2023 regarding legal actions, as there were no reported legal proceedings in November; however, there were several arrests and ongoing trials concerning right-wing extremism during this period. The lack of legal actions underscores the complexities and challenges in prosecuting individuals associated with these extremist ideologies.

On the other hand, acts of violence are on the rise as a global trend, where we observe more and more violence exercised on people, institutions and places of worship by individuals or groups affiliated to the extreme right.

The escalating presence of threats and the incitement to violence associated with extremist ideologies on social networks becomes increasingly significant. This growing concern compels us to perceive these platforms as virtual spaces hosting activities linked to right-wing extremism and terrorism. As part of the response to the surge in online hate speech, New York has taken proactive measures to combat extremism, allocating $3 million to mobilize against the rise of online hate speech, emphasizing the need for concerted efforts to address and prevent the spread of extremist ideologies in the digital realm.

Throughout November, the landscape of far-right extremist ideologies has witnessed notable developments, characterized by a sustained focus on anti-immigration sentiments and an intensified emphasis on the ongoing conflict in Gaza. These incidents have raised alarm over an increasing prevalence of anti-Semitic, Islamophobic, and racially motivated ideologies within the far-right domain.

The confluence of far-right ideologies and the escalating violence is increasingly problematic, reflecting an evolving and dynamic landscape where anti-immigration sentiments and international conflicts, notably the war in Gaza, serve as catalysts for extremist activities. Notably, there has been a discernible increase in Neo-Nazi ideology, alongside a rise in anti-Islamic and anti-Semitic sentiments. The intertwining of these ideologies and actions underscores the imperative for a comprehensive response to counteract and prevent such incidents in the future.

Furthermore, we have seen an increase in gender-based violence. A clear example of it is the “incel” ideology, short for involuntary celibate, which is a subculture characterized by individuals who express frustration and resentment due to perceived social and sexual rejection. Members often blame women for their involuntary celibacy and harbor misogynistic views, fostering an atmosphere of anger and hostility. This subculture has gained attention for its connection to real-world violence, as seen in the case of Oguzhan Sert in Canada.



20Minutos. Grupos de “extrema derecha” atacan a la Policía de Dublín durante el operativo por el apuñalamiento múltiple. (2023, November 23). https://www.20minutos.es/noticia/5193160/0/apunalamiento-multiple-dublin-provoca-disturbios-grupos-extrema-derecha/

Barron’s. Hitler’s Austrian Hometown Still Honours Two Nazis: Association. (2023, November 23). https://www.barrons.com/news/hitler-s-austrian-hometown-still-honours-two-nazis-association-df2fcb91

The Daily Beast. Iowa School District Apologizes After Emailing Nazi ‘Quote of the Day’. (n.d.). BBC. Plummer, R. (2023, November 10). Belgium detains two far-right terror suspects. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-67381829

BBC. Mackintosh, T., & Atkinson, E. (2023, November 12). London protests: Met condemns ‘extreme violence’ of far-right. https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-67390514

Euronews.com. Lawless, B. (2023, November 24). Disturbios de grupos de extrema derecha tras el apuñalamiento múltiple en Dublín. https://es.euronews.com/2023/11/24/disturbios-de-grupos-de-extrema-derecha-tras-el-apunalamiento-multiple-en-dublin

France 24. French government urges calm after teen’s death at party sparks far-right riots. (2023, November 27). https://www.france24.com/en/france/20231127-french-government-urges-calm-after-far-right-seizes-on-teen-s-shock-killing

Global News. LeBel, J. (2023, November 16). Nathaniel Veltman guilty of 1st-degree murder, fears remain for Muslim community | Globalnews.ca. https://globalnews.ca/news/10095556/nathaniel-veltman-verdict/

Governor Kathy Hochul. Following Significant Uptick in Anti-Muslim and Antisemitic Rhetoric on Social Media, Governor Hochul Deploys New Resources to Combat Online Hate. (2023, November 21). https://www.governor.ny.gov/news/following-significant-uptick-anti-muslim-and-antisemitic-rhetoric-social-media-governor-hochul

Greenwich Time. Blye, A., McEnroe, C., Miller, R., & Campbell, S. (2023, November 16). Greenwich police say flyers promoting white supremacist group found in driveways. Retrieved December 4, 2023, from https://www.greenwichtime.com/news/article/greenwich-police-white-supremacist-18496260.php

Infobae. Bonzo, A. (2023, November 17). Elon Musk generó indignación tras respaldar mensajes antisemitas y supremacistas en X: “Has dicho la pura verdad”. Retrieved December 4, 2023, from https://www.infobae.com/america/mundo/2023/11/17/elon-musk-respaldo-mensajes-antisemitas-y-supremacistas-en-x-has-dicho-la-pura-verdad/

Jiménez, R. (2023, November 17). Al menos 10 detenidos en una nueva noche de protestas y cargas policiales en Ferraz. El HuffPost. Retrieved December 5, 2023, from https://www.huffingtonpost.es/politica/al-10-detenidos-nueva-noche-protestas-cargas-policiales-ferraz.html

La Razón. Farreras, L. (2023, November 24). Detienen a un asesor de la Administración Obama por proferir insultos islamófobos a un vendedor de comida en Nueva York. https://www.larazon.es/internacional/detienen-asesor-administracion-obama-proferir-insultos-islamofobos-vendedor-comida-nueva-york_2023112465607e010d39ec0001b822e1.html

Mundo Islam. Condenado en Canadá el autor del asesinato de una familia musulmana. (2023, November 17). Retrieved December 4, 2023, from https://mundoislam.com/actualidad/america/2023/11/17/condenado-canada-autor-asesinato-familia-musulmana/

News. The Austin Chronicle. Bingamon, B. (2023, November 27). Recapping Elon Musk’s Antisemitic Shitstorm: Losing his mind, or just advertisers? – Retrieved December 4, 2023, from https://www.austinchronicle.com/daily/news/2023-11-27/recapping-elon-musks-antisemitic-shitstorm/

Peninsula 360 Press. Cruz, P. (2023, November 6). Estudiante Árabe de Stanford es víctima de crimen de odio por un estudiante sionista. https://peninsula360press.com/es_mx/estudiante-arabe/

The Age. Crowe, A. (2023, November 2). White supremacist facing charges after allegedly performing Nazi salute. https://www.theage.com.au/politics/victoria/white-supremacist-facing-charges-after-allegedly-performing-nazi-salute-20231102-p5egx3.html

The Guardian. Helmore, E. (2023, November 24). Racially extremist materials found in home of Ohio Walmart mass shooter. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2023/nov/23/ohio-walmart-mass-shooter-racially-extemist-materia

The Guardian. Terrorist slur against Sydney primary school boy prompts ‘massive concern’ from NSW premier. (2023, November 27). https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2023/nov/27/racism-slur-terrorist-sydney-primary-school-premier-chris-minns-speech

The Independent. White supremacist student jailed for seven years for sharing terror documents. (2023, November 3). https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/crime/winchester-crown-court-wiltshire-swindon-anders-breivik-alevel-b2441065.html

WTTW News. ‘Not the First Time I Have Ever Dealt With Antisemitism’: Former Mayor Rahm Emanuel After Michigan Home Vandalized with the Word ‘Nazis’. (2023, November 22). https://news.wttw.com/2023/11/22/not-first-time-i-have-ever-dealt-antisemitism-former-mayor-rahm-emanuel-after-michigan

[1] Helmore, 2023

[2] Petrizzo, 2023

[3] Farreras, 2023

[4] Blye, 2023

[5] Redacción ,2023

[6] Cherone, 2023

[7]  Cherone, 2023

[8] Bingamon, 2023

[9] New York State, 2023

[10] HuffPost , 2023

[11] D. Rodriguez, 2023

[12] Euronews, 2023

[13] Australian Associated Press, 2023

[14] Crowe, 2023

[15] Mackintosh & Atkinson, 2023

[16] Mitchell, 2023

[17] News Wires, 2023

[18] AFP, 2023

[19] Plummer, 2023